v Visy Industries Holdings Pty Ltd (No 3)
 FCA 1617 (2 November 2007)
Agreed statement of facts (forthcoming)
Held (Heerey J)
Penalties of $36m imposed on Visy
[Para 306] Cartel behaviour of the kind with which this case is concerned is extremely destructive of the competition on which the prosperity of a free market economy depends. Often the profits can be immense, and the risk of detection slight. Of its nature, cartel behaviour is likely to occur in secret and between parties who seek mutual benefit. In the present case, detection occurred purely by chance when Amcor’s solicitors, in the course of quite unrelated litigation, stumbled across incriminating material. Even then the present resolution may not have been reached were it not for two additional factors. First, the Commission’s immunity policy and, secondly, the fact that there were not only witnesses prepared to give evidence, but also tape recordings of damning conversations.
[Para 307] The progressive increase in the maximum penalties mentioned above shows how gravely the legislature regards this kind of conduct. Price fixing and market sharing are not offences committed by accident, or in a fit of passion. The law, and the way it is enforced, should convey to those disposed to engage in cartel behaviour that the consequences of discovery are likely to outweigh the benefits, and by a large margin.
[Para 308] Critical to any anti-cartel regime is the level of penalty for individual contravenors. We tend to overlook the fact that corporations are constructs of the law; they only exist and possess rights and liabilities as a consequence of the law. Heavy penalties are indeed appropriate for corporations, but it is only individuals who can engage in the conduct which enables corporations to fix prices and share markets.
[Para 309] Many countries with free market economies have recognised this reality by enacting laws which make cartel conduct by individuals subject to criminal sanctions, including imprisonment.